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Trader Definitions
CD definitions
Vinyl LP & standard definitions

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Traders sometimes use words and abbreviations that might be new to you. 
We'll keep this page updated to help guide your trade.

1 for 1, 1:1, 1-1, 141 etc.- Literally "One for one". This refers to a trade that is equal. One disc for one disc.

2 for 1, 241, 2/1, etc.- (See B&P). This is similar. It means two blanks for 1 recording.

B/P, bnp, B&P etc. - "Blanks and Postage". This is a method of helping newbies acquire shows. If you have nothing to trade, you send the trader however many blank tapes or CDrs they request along with a pre addressed, postage paid envelope. In return, the trader will tape a show for you. This can be a good thing to help people start their collection, but it can also be abused by both parties. Some traders do not accept B&P trades for this reason.

Bias -   This is a term that  refers to a very technical manufacturing process of adding an inaudible frequency that comprises most of the recordable area (up to 90%) of your tape. It 'fools' the tape into recording certain frequencies at pre determined levels. As far as tape traders are concerned, all you need to know is: 
1) Never use a low bias tape. (This is for voice only)
2) Use Metal bias only at the request of the trader, and if you have a compatible deck.
3) Use high bias in every other situation

Branch (See Tree)

Brand or Brand Name CDr - (Branded) A name brand, quality CDr (As opposed to discount bin, unknown brands)
Branded Disc - (Brand Name) A name brand, quality CDr (As opposed to discount bin, unknown brands)

Burn, Burning - To record a CDr

CD - Compact Disc

CDr, CD-r, CDR - (Compact Disc - Recordable) A recordable compact disc

CDRW - (Compact Disc - Read / Write) A recordable compact disc that can be erased and re-recorded as desired

DAO - See Disc-at-once

Dead Space - Part of the tape or CDr that contains no sound

Disc-at-once - This is a method of burning a CDr that eliminates the traditional 2 second gap between tracks.  Disc-at-once means all the tracks are burned seemlessly in one session, as opposed to the method of buring track-at-once.  DAO burning allows a CDr to be listened straight through without any stop between gaps, but also offers the cabalility to skip to a specific track on the CDr.  Nearly all burners built in the last few years can burn DAO, but the option must also be selected in whatever burning software is used.  More information can be found at Andy McFadden's website.

Dolby - A process invented by Dolby Sound Labs that attempts to eliminate tape hiss. It has fallen from grace with most traders, as it can cause deterioration of the high end of the music.

DPI, dpi - "Dots per inch" This is, in truth, a very complex and relative term relating to image pixels. Well beyond our scope. There are two ways that traders use the term. The two are unrelated for all practical purposes. One is in describing the printer, the other is used for the scanner. Don't confuse the two, or try to relate them to one another. As for printer dpi, the bigger the number the better (more like a photograph) the image will be. A favorite new standard is 740dpi. Previously it was 600dpi. As for the scanner, the dpi setting (sometimes referred to as "ppi" or pixels per inch) will determine the file size of an image. If the image is only to be viewed on a monitor, a lower setting such as 72 dpi is best; as it will create a very substantially smaller file, and therefore conserve space. If an image is ever to become a hardcopy (printed... such as a CD cover); that low of a setting will never work. Most prefer a scanner setting of 300 dpi if the image is to be printed.

FLAC -  stands for Free Lossless Audio Codec. Grossly oversimplified, FLAC is similar to MP3, but lossless, meaning that audio is compressed in FLAC without any loss in quality. This is similar to how Zip works, except with FLAC you will get much better compression because it is designed specifically for audio, and you can play back compressed FLAC files in your favorite player (or your car or home stereo) just like you would an MP3 file.
FLAC is freely available and supported on most operating systems, including Windows, "unix" (Linux, *BSD, Solaris, OS X, IRIX), BeOS, OS/2, and Amiga. There are build systems for autotools, MSVC, Watcom C, and Project Builder.
This information is supplied by the Free Lossless Audio Codec website. To learn more, visit them HERE

ff - fast forward

ff/rew - fast forward then rewind. (See 'unpack')

Glass Master - As opposed to a CD-r that has been individually created by being directly recorded onto, the traditional mass produced CD is produced by being replicated from a single glass disc referred to as the 'master disc' or 'glass master'. Any CD (such as those purchased at a music store). At one time, referring to the recording simply as 'CD' was sufficient. With the advent of the CD-r, some like to add 'glass master' to clarify that the CD is a true, replicated, mass produced CD rather than a CD-r. Other than a few mass produced CD-r projects, it is only the true glass mastered CD that holds an intrinsic value with the collector. The term is used interchangeably to refer to the 'mother' or 'master' disc, the process of replicating, and/or the finished CD that ends up in the consumer's hand.

J-cards - The cardboard picture and/or information insert of a cassette tape. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as 'cover' 

Jewel case or Jewel box - This is the industry standard name for the plastic CD case

Leaf (See Tree)
Limb (See Tree)

MP3 - A file format for using sound on a computer. Many traders don't accept MP3 sourced CDs because of the bad quality associated with it. While there is obviously good quality MP3, it is a lossy compression file. 128k bit MP3, for instance, created with some auto CD burning software sounds bad. To be on the safe side, some traders simply request No MP3 sourced CD-r.

Maxell XLII - This is a brand of high bias cassette tape. Most traders prefer it, and unless otherwise stipulated, this is the tape that should be used in your trade. If a number follows the name, this designates the total length of the tape in minutes. 
(i.e. XLII60 would be 30 minutes long on each side.) 

Newbies - People who are new to something. In the traders lingo, it means that you don't have many shows to offer in trade

Norelco box - The standard plastic case or box that houses a cassette tape

One way trader -  A trader who can accept a certain format (such as video or CD-r), but can't return that same format in trade. They can generally supply audio tapes and/or B&P. -OR- A trader who will supply you with your format, but will not accept that format in return. (i.e. They can supply you with a cassette, but want a CD-r in return.)

rew - rewind

Root - The initial traders in a tree distribution.  (See Tree)

Seed - This refers to both the person who starts a Tree, and to the original tape or disc that was used.

SHN - Shorten (extension .shn) An audio compression scheme written by Tony Robinson of SoftSound that can compact .wav files without subtracting out any frequencies. It's "lossless"- everything in the original .wav is there, so that full quality is maintained. For many traders of live music, Shorten files (SHNs) therefore have an undisputed advantage over "lossy" MP3-format files. A SHN file made from a WAV is quite a bit larger than the corresponding MP3, with a size perhaps ~50-60%  of the orginal WAV. This definition is supplied by Greg and Diana Hamilton. An in-depth review can be found at their web page here.

Shell - The outside plastic housing that protects the enclosed tape. A cassette tape excluding the internal tape itself.

Sound recording - (As used by the USA Copyright Office) Any resulting medium, except for video or video related, that contains a series of musical, spoken, and/or other recorded sound. This can include, but is not limited to, audio tape, video tape (with no existing visual), LP album, CD, and CD-r.

TAO- Track-at-once. A method of burning one track of a CD-r at a time. Usually rejected by traders, in favor of DAO.

Tree - This is a term used by CD-r traders for the mass distribution of a particular CD-r. It refers to both the act of distributing (verb) and the group involved in the action (noun). The person who starts the tree is the seed. The seed passes on the CD-r to the Limbs or Biggest Branches (some designate these as roots or trunk line). These are folks who have agreed to make several copies, and pass them on to the Smaller Branches. The Branches, in turn, distribute the CD-r to individual traders called Leaves. To receive the CD-r, the Leaf sends a copy of a different CD-r to the Branch. This way, everybody receives a copy, and the Branch's collection grows by the number of discs they are willing to copy.

Tape - Cassette Tape (unless specified) 
Tips:  Higher-grade tapes within a type are typically distinguished by an "X" or an "S" model number. 
 Most tape decks automatically set the bias for the type of tape by reading notches on the cassette. 
 "C" indicates the total number of minutes on the tape. 
 Type II tapes can record higher frequencies than Type I tapes and have a higher signal-to-noise ratio. 
Type IV tapes are even better. 
Warning:  C-120s use thinner tape, which is more prone to jamming and breaking. 

Unpack - The act of first fast forwarding, and then rewinding a newly opened cassette tape. As new tapes sometimes tend to be wound too tightly, this allows the tape to settle into a normal, unstretched position. When not performed, the recorded music can possibly be adversely affected as the tape relaxes after recording. 

Virgin - A new tape that has never been recorded on. Also used to refer to vinyl made from all new material.

White noise - Unwanted 'hiss and crackel' interference. (Turn your TV to a chanel that you don't recieve. That's white noise) 

XLII - (Pronounced X L Two) See 'Maxell XLII'


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